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Senin, 22/06/2015 21:31:04


WAHYU SRI AMBAR ARUM State University of Jakarta.

School-based Management (SBM) is assessed to be able to provide students and other school members a program to help themenhance their personal characteristics. The aim of the implementation of the SBM is to enhance the personal characteristics of all human resources in schools, they are students, educational personnel (principals, laboratory assistants, librarians, administration staffs) which is hoped to increase their performance in doing their duties and works. If the implementation of SBM is done with virtuous and positive personal characteristics,the enhancement of the quality of the management itself will come as the consequence. The implementation is applied by planning, executing, supervising, and evaluating schools in various sectors which are performed .by upholding the values of personal characteristics which are to believein God, oneself, others, society and environment, and national values. Those values are integrated in SBM e.g. independence, teamwork, participation, transparency, accountability. The principles of SBM which comprise the values are: 1) The clarity of tasks and responsibilities reflect the value of trustworthiness, honesty, discipline 2) The ‘Right man on the Right Place’-based work division reflects the value of objectivity, rationale, and future-orientated thoughts 3) The Unity, obviousness, and firm policies reflect the value of wisdom, democracy, and humanity 4) The rules and regulations agreed in the implementation of SBM. 5).Cooperation, this term means work together or teamwork, respect one to another. School Base Management is based on eight (8) National Standard Education, those standards are based on management principles which consists of planning, doing, acting, and evaluating. All of school programs are conducted to fulfil those Standards. The development of value characters are effective, efficient, productive, creative and innovation. Whereas the controlled- characters values are honest, responsible, rationale, transparent and accurate. The conclusion,SBM was combined with the characters value can enhance the human resources development and refers to quality improvement of education.
Keywords: school-based management, values of personal characteristic, human resources in school.
Presented : International Conference :”Enhancing Education Quality in Asian Community “30 May 2015, hosted by Post Graduate Program,University of PGRI Semarang Indonesia.
Background of Study
The Constitution of the Republic of Indonesia (1945) gives the strength to develope the potential for every citizenship. On the chapter 1 in Sisdiknas Decree 2003 mentioned that the objective of National Education is todevelope the student potential to be competence,good personality and attitude.

Schools are institutions of formal education which aims to form students in order to have a mature personality and capable in carrying out the responsibilities. Education in schools is one of the important factors that can support the advancement of a country. The development of globalization has triggered Indonesia to improve the quality of human resources. Human resources with character in a school such as school principal, teachers, students, administration employees have a very important role. Students with character besides formed through learning is also influenced by the school management. School-based management (SBM) if integrated with the values of national character, will produce qualified management. For example transparency, responsibility, cooperation, participation, and independence which constitute the values of school management with character. Management schools with character will have an impact on the effectiveness, efficiency and educational purpose will be reached. In fact, we can still found the human resources in schools that have yet to implement and uphold the values of characters optimally. So the education creates the competence and good personality of Indonesia Human resources.

The implementation of character value encounters the obstacles for instance the lack of support and participation from the school committee, the parents, and stake holder .Now during decentralization era , school management must be managed effectively.There must be a strong positive relationship , good communication between school and the committee .School Based Management ,the decision making ,leadership and management have changed .The leader should know exaxtly what to be achieved and how to be done. If vision and mission are not yet available,they need to take initiatives to have themdeveloped by involving all related stakeholders ( Hinchco,2011; Robertson et al,2011) the human resources of school and community need to have values character .
Purpose of Study
The purpose of Implementating education with character in the school-based management :
1) To apply the values of school-based management by combining the values of the characters in relation to Almighty God, ourselves, fellow human beings, the environment and national values.
2) To Implement and civilize the the values of the characters in the school-based management (SBM).
3) To Improve the quality of school-based management through careful planning, implementation, monitoring and evaluation followed by the values of the characters in relation to the Almighty God, ourselves, fellow human beings, the environment, and national values.
4) To improve the quality of human resources to be good citizenship

The Essence of Quality
Quality is a comprehensive descriptions and the characteristics of of the goods or services that demonstrate its ability to satisfy the expected demand. Definition of quality include input, process and output of education. Inputs include covering human resources, input software and other resources. If the level of readiness of the input is high, then the higher the quality of the input. The process is the decision-making process, organizational management, program management, the learning process. Process is said to be high quality if there is coordination and adjustment as well as guidance with the school inputs (teachers, students, curriculum, money, equipment, etc). The output of education is a school performance that can be measured by the quality of work, effectiveness and productivity. Output is said to be high when the school show the achievement, particularly in academic, but the quality of schools is influenced by several factors and stages of linked activities.

The Essence of Character
Character is derived from the Greek word meaning "to mark" or mark and focus on the value of kindness in the form of behavior or action. According to Indonesian major dictionary, character is congenital, heart, soul, personality, behavior, and temprament. The character is the behavior of someone related to the Almighty God, fellow human beings, environment and nationality which manifest themselves in mind, an attitude, a feeling of words and deeds.Education value produce character consist of components of good character .Include moral knowing,moral feeling and moral action .

The Integrated Value in the Implementation of SBM
Management related with achievement of goals conducted through other people. In the management contained the utilization of of resources for the achievement of goals. Education management process mainly consists of planning, implementation and evaluation of education. Process management is a process that continues over time. School management are intended for the formation of a superior character. As for its implementation in various areas or elements of school activities. School Management with good character will implement or integrate the values character in the administration of the school management. The relevance between the values of the component behavior in moral character (knowing, feeling and action) against the Almighty God, ourselves, others, the environment and national and international. The elements of character education that will be planned, implemented and controlled include the character value competence of graduates, curriculum, character values of learners, learning the value of character, the value of character teachers and education staff.
Some example of activities implemented in the character education school management are:
1). The violation of rules which implies the reduction of the value and punishment.
2) The provision of landfills.
3) The implementation of honesty canteen.
4). Praying to the God almighty and giving regard,
5). Conducting the class cleaning,
6). Conducting flag ceremony,etc
7).Training about character education.

In implementing those activities, bellow are the instance for the character education strategic can be implemented :
1.Existing the model from the leader for good moral behavior
2.Constructing the manual for moral value
3.Utilizing the ethics in decision making
4.Developing   good values   of student, teacher and staff.
5.Creating the situation and inspiration to show moral behaviour
6.Consisting for the thaught moral behaviour and performence
7, Constructing the culture for good attitude
8.Giving the reward

1. The Implementation of School-based Management Principles of Character
The Government Regulation number 32 in 2013 about the change to the Government Regulation number 19 in 2005 about the National Standard of Education article 49 paragraph 1 stated: “The management of educational unit at the elementary and secondary education applied the school-based management as indicated by the independency, partnerships, participations, transparency and accountability”.
Based on the policy and science studies, the MBS principle was developed into several elements that contain the character values which can be implemented at school that included: 1) the independency, 2) task clarity and accountability, 3) the work distribution based on the right man on the right place, 4) justice, 5) transparency, 6) partnerships, 7) participations, 8) efficiency, and 9) accountability.

Independence means that the school’s authority to manage the resources and to organize the interests of the school community according to its own initiative based on the aspirations of the school community according to the rules and regulations. The school’s independency should be supported by the school’s ability to make the best decision, adaptive and anticipative to the educational innovation, synergize and collaborate with the school community to fulfil the school needs. The school should be able to stand on its own without determined by other parties.
3.Task Clarity and Accountability
Every school personals should have a main task clarity, function and accountability. In implementing this principle, the values of trust, transparency, and accountability should be reflected, so when one is given a task then the one that become the guidance is trust or not. Not because the proximity factors, the siblings factors, and any other factors.
4.The work distribution based on the Right Man on the Right Place
When given a task or a job to someone should be based on the expertise and the ability of that someone. The placement of a person in a position should be appropriate with the demand of the job description of the position to be occupied and the person who is given the task should meet the required criteria. In the principles, the values that are developed are the rational, commitment value, and thinking far ahead. In consideration in placing someone who thinking far ahead the future is plausibility because usually these people have a high sense of commitment and its directed to achieve the goals in the future.

The principle of justice leads to the realization of the balance between rights and obligations. It means that the school does not take sides against one of the human resources involved in managing the school, and in the resources’ distribution for the benefit of improving the quality of the school. Whether the school community and other stakeholders are given the same opportunity to participate and provide support to improve the quality of the school. In implementing this principle, the character values that being implemented is empathy, business-like, understanding, caring and the willingness to be able to put ourselves in the right position. By treated fairly, all of the stakeholders will provide support to the school as optimal as possible.
Management in the MBS context is conducted openly or transparently, so all of the school community and the stakeholders can determine the mechanism of management of school resources. After that the school get the trust and support from the stakeholders. The transparency can be done by dissemination of information at school and provision of information to the public about the school resources management to gain the public trust in the school. The growth of the public trust is the school’s first step in efforts to improve the public participation to the school

A partnership is the fabric of cooperation between the school and the community, both individuals, groups/organizations as well as the World Business and Industry (DUDI). In the principle of partnership between the school and the community, then the position parallel to, and mutually beneficial cooperation to improve the quality of education in schools.
This principle emphasizes awareness to every citizen as an integral part of the school and is an integral unity with the other parts. Sense of community is a social capital that should be developed at the school. In implementing this principle should be reflected in the values of character as good value thought, mutual respect, and still maintain their independent nature. For example in preparing RKS and RKAS, program evaluation, required for inputs or assistance directly from stakeholders. Benefits received by the school include increasing the capability and skills of learners, contribute ideas for the development of schools and school quality improvement. Benefit society generally perceived indirectly, for example build noble members of society, and the creation of social order.

Participatory intended as the participation of all stakeholders associated with the school in managing the school and decision-making. Their participation can be done through a formal procedure that the school committee, or involvement in school activities incidentally, Forms can be donated labor participation, funding, and infrastructure, as well as technical assistance, among others, the idea of the development of the school. Character values developed in them are active participatory, democratic,know each other.Not only active in physically but also active in thinking and positive action.Democratic for decision making , by using participation   active from the audience to give decision making . (decision based on the vote not based on discrimination from the leader

Efficiency can be defined as the use of resources (funding, infrastructure and personnel) as minimal as possible in the hope of obtaining the results as much as possible. The implementation of the principle character values developed is saving, not wasteful, carefully, using a scale priority against the use of resources but still can reach the goal of improving the quality of schools.

Accountability emphasis on accountability of education in schools, the goal is to improve the quality of schools. School resource management refers to the laws and be accountable to the government, the entire school community and other stakeholders. Accountability includes the implementation process and management components of the school. In line with the granting greater autonomy to the school for the accountability principle character values that need to be implemented is honest, trustworthy, willing to take risks, the adjustment to the circumstances of the school. With the implementation of these characters are expected service to the community will be fulfilled properly.

The character value in planning integration
Planning school programs and activities carried out through the development and preparation of school work plan, (RKS), for the medium/long term and plan school activities and budget for short-term or yearly. In character education efforts, schools should come together with stakeholders RKAS and RKS preparing this through a variety of processes that may cultivate the values ??of the characters. Through good planning process is expected to bring a range of values ??of good character anyway. Character values ??that can be implemented integrally in the school planning process such as: a low dependency rate, adaptive and anticipatory/proactive to reduce the occurrence of irregularities; having high entrepreneurial spirit (resilient, innovative, persistent) so as to dna willing to take risks; responsible for the successful planning of programs and activities; has a quality control, qualification, and strong specifications; has a strong control over time, targets, places, targets and funding; and a high commitment to himself.

The Integration of Character Values in the implementation of the program
There are at least three character values which can be integrated into the implementation of the program and school activities, namely effective, efficient, and productive. Effective character value emerges in schools if the results achieved in the fulfillment of the SNP are in accordance with the expected goals. Efficient character value can be achieved if the executed program and activity result in or fulfill the SNP in accordance with the goal using the available costs, or the rational costs for the maximum result of the SNP. Lastly, the productive character value is usually achieved if the implementation of the program and activity in the fulfilment of the SNP are in accordance with the goal quantitatively and qualitatively.

The practitioner of the program and activity at school is expected to be able to implement the character values, such as: confident, rational, logical, critical, analytical, creative, innovative, independent, responsible, patient, careful, self-sacrificing, courageous, trustworthy, honest, keeping promises, fair, ashamed of doing something wrong, loyal, hard working, concentration, dynamic, truthful, positive tinking, discipline, vision, energetic, efficient, honest, dedicate, productive, transparent,   innovative. Hard working is required to solve the obstacles, as well as discipline   for habitual, the obey of attitude for the regulation and law show the good performance .Other developed attitude are diligent, persistent/tenacious, thorough, full of initiative, positive thinking, disciplined, anticipative, visionary, vibrant, dynamic, frugal, punctual, devoted/dedicative, restraint, productive, sportsmanlike, resilient, open-minded, and orderly.      All of the characters mentioned above is needed for the good citizenship so that the optimal of comprehensive and implementation concept of character is needed in the school .

In order to implement the integrated school management with character values, a good human resource management is needed, among other things through: (a) admission planning of teachers and staff to meet with school’s necessity, (b) organizing activity of teachers and staff in line with their own field, (c) briefing teachers and staff to cooperate to achieve the purpose, (d) Supervising the works of teachers and staff to ensure that they work according to the mutually-agreed rules, (e) improving the professionalism of teachers and staff, technical or non-technical, performing career and welfare counselling, as well as applying reward and punishment system. The Principal is the key leader in the school with a strong educational background and professional experiences.As a leader or manager in the school, the principal has responsibilities to realize the program.

Integrating Character Values in Control/Supervision Program
Control in school management includes supervision, monitoring, and evaluation planning, implementation, and results of the SNP fulfilment. Control emphasizes on school’s effort to produce or guarantee the program implementation and the goal’s success. Supervision is assistance in giving solution towards a problem that arises during the program implementation. Monitoring is an effort in understanding the development of program and activity implementation towards obstacles or deviations. Evaluation is assessing the school’s overall performance in the success of fulfilling the SNP programs. Evaluations are conducted regularly, which are short-term evaluation, medium-term evaluation, and long-term evaluation. The strengths and weaknesses of the program for years to come can be discovered through evaluation.
The control process in school’s management should be accompanied by the character values of the practitioner, such as: honest, confident, rational, logical, critical, analytical, creative, innovative, trustworthy, fair, persistent, thorough, visionary, dedicative, open-minded, orderly, sportsmanlike, and abide by the rules. From the managerial or institutional side, the character values that can be developed in this control are open-minded, objective, fair, measured and responsible.
Management is utilization and empowerment of all resources (human and other resources) through processes and approaches in order to achieve a goal. The essence of management is working with other people in order to achieve the expected result. Process of integrating various resources and tasks can be done through management for the goal that has been set. School management of character can be done through processes and approaches that reflect noble values and good norms towards the God Almighty, oneself, others, environment, nation, and international. Elements of character education that will be planned, implemented, and controlled are competency character values, curriculum, learners’ character values, character values in learning, character values of the educators and staff in staffing based on “the Right Man in the Right Place” which principle is to develop rational value, commitment value, and future planning value.

The school culture is the basis interaction between school and community.Principals need to be aware that school goals cannot be achieved without involving community and should recpect each other. The quality of School based management is depend upon of character human resources and the completing the school organizational tasks that make the school run well with the vision and mission .
Lickona,Thomas (1991)Educating for Character :How our Schools can Teach Respect Responsibility,New York : Bantan Books.
Ministry of National Education. (2002)     School Based Management   Directorate General of Basic and Secondary Education.
Ministry of National Education and culture (2003). National Education System, Decree No 20, National, Jakarta
Ministry of National Education (2011), Guideline of character Education Directorate General of Basic and Secondary Education
Haycock,Kati (2007) Closing the Achievement Gap : Where Are We? What Are the most              important Roles for Education Leaders?.In Bridge to School Reform.Education Leadership .The Wallace Foundation,s National Conference.New York City.
Sulhan Najib (2011) Character Based Education ,Surabaya :PT.Jepe.Pres.Media Utama ,Jawa Pos Group.


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